In Maryland, there are two types of adoptions: agency adoptions and independent adoptions.

Agency adoptions can be either private agency adoptions or public agency adoptions.

  • Private agency adoptions occur when a Maryland licensed adoption agency arranges for placement and adoption of a child who has been placed for adoption.
  • Public agency adoptions occur after a child has been removed from the biological parents’ home by the State of Maryland and has been placed with an adoptive family.

Independent adoptions occur when the biological parents identify an individual who they desire to adopt their child and enter into an adoption agreement.


Maryland law requires that the parental rights of both biological parents must be terminated for an adoption to occur.

The one exception to this rule is a step-parent adoption, when only one biological parent’s rights must be terminated.

Biological parents can either consent to termination or their rights can be involuntarily terminated.

The law presumes that it is in a child’s best interest to be raised by their biological parents.

When the parental relationship is detrimental to the child’s best interest, it must be found that the biological parents are unfit or that exceptional circumstances exist.

The controlling standard in any termination of parental rights hearing is the best interest of the child. Once rights have been terminated, an agency or the local Department of Social Services, acting as guardian, can consent to the adoption.


FLAG attorneys have extensive experience providing representation in legal adoption proceedings.

Our attorneys have represented children in hundreds of adoption cases after rights have been terminated, as well as parents involved in independent adoptions and step-parents seeking to adopt their spouse’s child.

From background checks and the home study process through the review of documents, contracts, and finalization of the adoption, our attorneys will assist you with what can be a complex and emotionally stressful period as you expand your family and fulfill your dreams.


The goal of any adoption is to provide a child with a loving, supportive, nurturing, “forever” home.

Adoptions are unlike any other legal process and the attorneys at FLAG understand that your family’s future well-being is at stake.

FLAG understands the emotional process that parents experience during the adoption process. Our attorneys have the track record of meeting their clients’ advocacy needs through zealous advocacy and compassionate, empathetic support.

Helping our clients build strong, supportive families is one of the main reasons FLAG was established.